What is retina?
Retina is the back of the eye on the inside. This layer contains photoreceptors that receive the light and concert it into neural signals. These receptors spread on all parts of retina but more so in macula and yellow spot. The light is focused on the retina after it enters the eye through cornea and is reflected/bent by the lens of human eye. If any problem arises concerning retina, the light cannot be focused properly, then refractive defects occur.
Eye vision deteriorates in the case of any possible damage to the retina. Many defects related to retina arise in advanced ages. In some cases the disease is insidious without any symptoms at all while in others it may be too late for treatment. Retinal examination is so important for early diagnosis. Everyone should visit his eye doctor for retinal examination once every two years or once a year if there is any related disease in your family.
What are retinal diseases?
There are various diseases occuring after retinal damage, leading to vision loss for some of which prompt interference is necessary.
- Retinal detachment: A serious eye condition of retina losing its normal position after pigmented cell layer seperates from the inner layers of the retina. There are two types of this condition:retinal tear or retinal detachment, each of which is an emergency situation that needs immediate medical attention. Unless the patient see an eye care Professional immediately, it is inevitable not to have permanent vision loss. Retina cannot receive nourishment when it is detached, which causes the cells to die. Losing Photoreceptor cells leads to permanent blindness. In the case of retinal detachment, the patient should be promptly treated before there is any damage to the cells. Eye examination is a crucial step in confirming retinal tears. Preventing permanent vision loss is possible with a proper fundus exam. Though, conditions such as cataracts hinders the aforementioned examination. Ocular ultrasound is the choice of exam for these patients. If a retinal tear hasn’t yet progressed to detachment, a laser surgery is a suggested procedure.
- Retinal vascular occlusion: vision loss is inevitable when blood vessels of the retina bleed or blocked .This condition arises mostly with hypertension and diabetes causing high pressure in blood vessels. To prevent vision loss and retina detachment to deteriorate said diseases should be treated.
- Macular degeneration: deterioration of macula-full of photoreceptors- due to various reasons. The most common form is AMD, which is age related macular degeneration. The greatest cause of vision loss after the age of 60 is due to AMD. UV rays, smoking, hereditary conditions or multiple diseases can be accepted as risk factors. There are a few types of AMD, which is an insidious disease that progresses quickly and has no symptoms at first leaving itself incurable. Various laser treatments are used to hinder the progress of AMD.